Article: Research

Creative Arts Solution 

Foundation

a non-governmental foundation

Define your research.
How you carry out research largely depends on the project. However there is no absolute right or wrong way to research.

According to the English Oxford dictionary, research is defined as “the systematic investigation into and study of materials and resources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions”.
Research is the key to any project, and the final result will be a function of the quality of your research. To research effectively, plan your project so you make good use of your time and resources.
Scope out the project
How to Conduct Research EffectivelyYou need to scope out the project you are researching. What are you trying to research? How you do that will depend on the nature of the project.
If it is a college project, such as a thesis, you probably have the ability to define the scope yourself. In this case, you can cast your net wide in the research. and to some extent “follow your nose “and see where it takes you.
If you are researching some specific aspect of a case for business reasons, or because it is a specified college assignment, you will need to define your scope and narrow your research.
In both cases, your early reading and research will help you to scope out the project, it will take shape as you progress.
You may well find you want to refine the topic, its scope, and your search strategy as the research progresses.
Search on the internet
Research revealed that twenty years ago, lot of researchers used to go to the library, but now they don’t often go as they were, because online researches are very fast, and modern
Many of us are familiar with internet searches, but for the benefits of others here are a few tips.
First select a search engine by opening the window that you use to access the internet and type search engines into the Search Bar.
Once the search engine is opened then type in a phrase describing what your search is, e.g. how to do an internet search effectively or type in a few key words or phrases such as internet search. Or search internet
Click the Search icon in the browser bar or press the Enter key on your keyboard. then assess your results
Search through the web pages shown, deciding which are relevant to you.
Here are some search tips;-
Search engines are not case sensitive, do not need punctuation, do not take account of words like the and AMD
You can use the advanced search facility
Not all search engines will give you the same results so you may want to try several
You can use a minus sign (-) before a word to “omit a word,” such a y recipe -meat for vegetarian recipes
You can use a plus sign (+) before a word to view each word separately e.g. +vegetarian+stuffed + peppers
Use quotation marks, to indicate you want to search a phrase, rather than get results which have only one of the words in the phrase e.g.“vegetarian stuffed peppers”. This means you will not get searches relating to vegetarian only, or peppers only.
You can write a question e.g. How do I search the internet?
Evaluting everything you see on the Internet is crucial when getting background information for an academic writing assignment.  Professors often prohibit students from citing Internet sites on a research paper so be careful that you understand what is acceptable and unacceptable to quote.  However, there are places on the Internet that will give you references that you may want to track down through your library.

Bookmarking

Each browser may be slightly different, but in general, when you are on a webpage you want to bookmark click bookmark in the browser, then Select add bookmark from the drop-down menu. Name the bookmark, and select the folder where you want to save it
Follow what interests you and is relevant to you. You will often find that you carry on into different search areas as you read and learn more. This is how you will define your research
Research comprises "creative work "
Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research articles or project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc.
                                                                                                                               The Beginning
Research misconduct became a public issue in the United States in 1981 when then Representative Albert Gore, Jr., chairman of the Investigations and Oversight Subcommittee of the House Science and Technology Committee, held the first hearing on the emerging problem. The hearing was prompted by the public disclosure of research misconduct cases at four major research centers in 1980. Some twelve cases of research misconduct were disclosed in this country between 1974-1981. Congressional attention to research misconduct was maintained throughout the 1980s by additional allegations of research misconduct and reports that the National Institutes of Health (NIH), universities, and other research institutions were inadequately responding to those allegations.

Congress took action in 1985 by passing the Health Research Extension Act. The Act, in part, added Section 493 to the Public Health Service (PHS) Act. Section 493 required the Secretary of Health and Human Services to issue a regulation requiring applicant or awardee institutions to establish "an administrative process to review reports of scientific fraud" and "report to the Secretary any investigation of alleged scientific fraud which appears substantial." The Section also required the Director, NIH, to establish a process for receiving and responding to reports from institutions. This legislation complemented existing authority under which the PHS pursued research misconduct in the 1970s and early 1980s. Guidelines were published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts in July, 1986; the Final Rule, "Responsibilities of Awardee and Applicant Institutions for Dealing With and Reporting Possible Misconduct in Science", was published in the Federal Register on August 8, 1989 and codified as 42 CFR Part 50, Subpart A.

Evolution of ORI

Before 1986, reports of research misconduct were received by funding institutes within PHS agencies. In 1986, the NIH assigned responsibility for receiving and responding to reports of research misconduct to its Institutional Liaison Office. This was the first step taken to create a central locus of responsibility for research misconduct within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

In March 1989, the PHS created the Office of Scientific Integrity (OSI) in the Office of the Director, NIH, and the Office of Scientific Integrity Review (OSIR) in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH). The sole purpose of these offices was to deal with research misconduct; the creation of OSIR also began the process of removing responsibility for research misconduct from the funding agencies. In May 1992, OSI and OSIR were consolidated into the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in the OASH.  Later that year, HHS established a hearing opportunity before the Research Integrity Adjudications Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board, HHS, for all scientists formally charged with research misconduct.

In January 1993, the ORI published its first quarterly ORI Newsletter.  In June 1993, the process of removing responsibility for handling allegations of research misconduct from the funding agencies was completed when President Clinton signed the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993. This Act established the ORI as an independent entity within HHS and replaced the term "scientific misconduct" with "research misconduct.". Organizationally, ORI is located within the Office of the Secretary of Health and Human Services in the Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS), formerly known as OASH, which is headed by the Assistant Secretary for Health.

Procedures Reviewed

The Act also mandated that a Commission on Research Integrity be created to review the system for protecting against research misconduct. The Commission delivered its report, Integrity and Misconduct in Research (pdf), to the Secretary of Health and Human Services in November 1995. The Commission, informally named the Ryan Commission after its chairman, made 33 recommendations including the development of a regulation on the protection of whistleblowers in research misconduct cases and the extension of the misconduct in science assurance to required institution to establish educational programs on the responsible conduct of research (RCR).

ORI began an intramural research program in 1993 commissioning a study of the consequences of whistleblowing for whistleblowers that was completed in 1995.  The first ORI Annual Report covered CY 1993 and was published in September 1994.   The ORI web site was initiated in 1995.

In 1996, the Secretary convened the HHS Review Group on Research Misconduct and Research Integrity (pdf) to examine the system under which the HHS handles allegations of research misconduct which included the issues addressed by the Ryan Commission.   In 1997, ORI began its conference and workshop program by collaborating with an institution, the University of Florida, for the first time in organizing an event.

ORI Redefined

In October 1999, the Secretary announced several changes based on the recommendations of the Ryan Commission and the HHS Review Group that were designed to improve its processes for responding to allegations of research misconduct and promoting research integrity:

1. The HHS adopted the proposed governmentwide definition of research misconduct developed by the National Science and Technology Council that was published in the Federal Register on October 13, 1999. The Federal Research Misconduct Policy containing the final definition was published in the Federal Register on December 6, 2000.

2. The primary responsibility of extramural institutions and intramural research programs for responding to allegations of research misconduct was reaffirmed. The Office of Inspector General, HHS, rather than ORI was given the authority to conduct any fact-finding required by the federal government. ORI continued to conduct oversight reviews of all investigations.

3. The Assistant Secretary for Health, upon recommendations from ORI, was delegated the authority to make final decisions regarding research misconduct findings and administrative actions, except for debarments, subject to appeal.

4. The role, mission and structure of the ORI was focused on preventing research misconduct and promoting research integrity principally through oversight, education, and review of institutional findings and recommendations.

5. The Departmental Appeals Board, HHS, continued to hear appeals, but the hearing panels were to include two scientists rather than one or none.

6. All extramural research institutions were required to provide training in the responsible conduct of research to all research staff who have direct and substantive involvement in proposing, performing, reviewing, or reporting research, or who receive research training, support by PHS funds or who otherwise work on PHS-supported research projects even if the individual did not receive PHS support. The PHS Policy on Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research was published in the Federal Register on December 1, 2000, and suspended on February 20, 2001, pending review of the substance of the policy and whether the document should have been issued as a regulation rather than a policy. The policy remains suspended.

7. A regulation on the protection of whistleblowers in research misconduct cases would be published.  The HHS published a notice of proposed rulemaking on Public Health Service Standards for the Protection of Research Misconduct Whistleblowers in the Federal Register on November 28, 2000;  the comment period ended on January 29, 2001. A final rule on the protection of whistleblowers is pending.

The new Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegated Authority was published in the Federal Register on May 12, 2000.

New Focus

In 2000, ORI began the Research on Research Integrity (RRI) Program and the biennial Research Conferences on Research Integrity to expand the knowledge base and develop a research community focused on the responsible conduct of research, research integrity, and research misconduct.  That same year ORI started the Rapid Response for Technical Assistance to provide early and direct assistance to institutions assessing research misconduct allegations.

In 2002, ORI launched the RCR Resource Development Program and the RCR Program for Academic Societies. The former program was designed to facilitate the development of materials for teaching the responsible conduct of research by the research community for use in the research community. The latter program, a collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, supported activities within academic societies designed to promote the responsible conduct of research among their members. The first RCR Expo was held in 2003 to call attention to the new RCR materials.

ORI published the ORI Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research in 2004 and began the RCR Program for Graduate Schools (link is external) in collaboration with the Council of Graduate Schools to institutionalize RCR education in graduate training.

A new regulation, PHS Policies on Research Misconduct (pdf), became effetive on June 16, 2005.  The regulation is codified at 42 C.F.R. Part 93.  ORI began developing a training program for institutional research integrity officers (RIOs) in 2005  that produced an orientation video in 2006 and boot camps in 2007.  In 2007, ORI also began the RCR Program for Postdocs and took another step toward the creation of a laboratory management training program in collaboration with the Laboratory Management Institute at the University of California-Davis to develop on-line instruction on laboratory management.  Previously, ORI organized the first national conference on the management of biomedical research laboratories in 1998 in collaboration with the University of Arizona and supported the development of instructional resources on laboratory management through its RCR Resource Development Program.
The Importance of Background Information
After choosing a topic, you will need to locate introductory sources that give basic background information about the subject. Finding background information at the beginning of your research is especially important if you are unfamiliar with the subject area, or not sure from what angle to approach your topic. Some of the information that a background search can provide includes:

  • Broad overview of the subject
  • Definitions of the topic
  • Introduction to key issues
  • Names of people who are authorities in the subject field
  • Major dates and events
  • Keywords and subject-specific vocabulary terms that can be used for database searches
  • Bibliographies that lead to additional resources
Here are important information background search to consider online by using encyclopedias, periodicals, and the Internet for background information.
                                                 
Encyclopedias
Encyclopedias are important sources to consider when initially researching a topic. General encyclopedias provide basic information on a wide range of subjects in an easily readable and understandable format.
If you are certain about what subject area you want to choose your topic from, you might want to use a specialized or subject encyclopedia instead. Subject encyclopedias limit their scope to one particular field of study, offering more detailed information about the subject.
General Encyclopedias provide information about nearly every topic. Using an encyclopedia is an effective way to quickly get a broad overview of a subject. Some encyclopedias will provide more in-depth information than others, however any general encyclopedia is a good source to consult for background information of your chosen subject area.

Most encyclopedias provide the following:
  • Main concepts
  • Titles of important books written about topic
  • Names of authors who have written about topic
  • Keywords and subject terms related to topic
  • Lists of related articles or additional resources
  • Gale Virtual Reference Library
This online encyclopedia is a vast online library giving instant access to the most authoritative and up-to-date scholarship across the arts, humanities, social sciences, and sciences. It is one of the largest academic reference collections online.
Subject-Specific Encyclopedias are important background sources for information. Unlike general encyclopedias which cover a wide range of topics, subject-specific encyclopedias focus their information in one particular subject area. Some features of subject-specific encyclopedias include:
Detailed articles written by experts within a field
Extensive and comprehensive bibliographies of important resources
Go to Research Guides for a list of subject-specific and electronic resources including encyclopedias.
Wikipedia
From Wikipedia's own page, "the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit".  This includes the 10 year old down the street so reading the entry and treating it as fact is not the best thing to do.  Instead use the References or Further Readings at the end of an entry to verify the information presented in the Wikipedia entry.
Periodicals
Periodicals (also known as serials) are publications printed "periodically", either daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, or on an annual basis. Journals, magazines, and newspapers are different types of periodicals. Examples of periodicals include the following:

NEWSPAPERS - New York Times
POPULAR MAGAZINES - Time or Vogue
SCHOLARLY JOURNALS/PEER-REVIEWED- Journal of Advertising Research
TRADE PUBLICATIONS - Consumer Marketing
Because of their up-to-date information, articles from newspapers, and popular and general interest periodical publications make great resources for choosing topics. However, scholarly or peer-reviewed journals, because they often require specialized knowledge or vocabulary, should not be used for selecting topics and instead used later in the research process when you have established a better understanding of your topic.

You may search in the following ways:
Keyword search example: journal and advertising
Title search example: american marketing journal
Title search example: new york times
Subject heading search example: advertising--periodicals
Frequently Used Databases for Newspapers.
Newspapers are good sources for up-to-date as well as historical information about events and issues. Databases such as
InfoTrac Newsstand
Factiva are excellent sources for locating newspaper articles from leading newspapers such as the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal.
Go to Newspaper Research in the UB Libraries for information on currently received newspaper titles, finding newspapers in the Classic Catalog and more.
Browsing Current Print Periodical Collections
It is also a good idea to browse current print periodical collections to see what the UB Libraries own, and to stay up-to-date in your subject area.

Current periodicals in the Humanities, Social Sciences, Sciences and Engineering are located in the current periodicals area, on the third floor of Lockwood Library. The periodicals are placed in an alphabetical order by title.
Google Books
Enter your search terms in Google books and digitized holdings of some of the worlds greatest academic libraries will appear.  Google collaborated with some of the finest research libraries in the world to digitize items found in the "public domain".  They also provide access to chapters within contemporary books.  This might give you just enough background information to get your paper started without coming in to the library to borrow a book.
Google Scholar
Here you are finding scholarly research, but from a limited number of journals.  Once you put in your search terms you can get a good overview of a topic by limiting to time period on the left. **Tip: Select "Settings" from the main page then "Library Links" (on the left).  Once there enter University at Buffalo and select the university.  This then allows you to find the article through your library by clicking the "Find it @ UB" link.
Background Research
Once you know the question you need to answer, spend some time doing some general reading about your topic, called 'background research'. The purpose of background research is to improve your background knowledge. This helps you to familiarise yourself with the events, people and places you need to write about.
Things you need to establish during background research:
  • Significant people
  • Significant events
  • Important locations
  • Important concepts or foreign words
Good background research helps you write better sub-questions and improves your vocabulary, which will improve the overall sophistication of your essay writing.
General history websites or Wikipedia help give you some background to a topic, but do not use them as references or sources in essays.




Writing the Summary
Summarizing your Research is like an abstract in a published research article, the purpose of an article summary is to give the reader a brief overview of the study. To write a good summary, identify what  is important and condense that information for your reader. The better you  a subject, the easier it is to explain it thoroughly and briefly.


 References:                                                                                                                             
Management Skill Courses.                                                                                              
Encyclopedias                                                                                                                         
University at Buffalo                                                                                 
www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com.                                                       
www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research.                                                          
www.ori.hhs.gov/historical-background                              
www.historyskills.com/researching/2-background-research                                                                  

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